Mechanical and electrical products are the largest commodities in China's foreign trade, and their trade volume accounts for 53.7% of foreign trade. In the context of the exponential growth of imported equipment, China's current inspection and supervision model for imported electromechanical products still has certain flaws. It has neither carried out risk assessment and classified management of imported products, nor has it made detailed regulations on inspection and supervision of imported electromechanical products and medical devices. Further standardization has resulted in higher management risks in the inspection and supervision of imported electromechanical products, and directly affected the efficiency of inspection and supervision.
Imported mechanical and electrical equipment, especially large-scale equipment, has special characteristics such as large arrival batches, long supervision period, and large number of equipment because it involves national economy and people's livelihood, and is prone to illegal behaviors such as evading inspection and entraining illegal articles. The author analyzes the current status of imported electromechanical products, conducts risk analysis based on product characteristics and existing problems, clarifies the focus of inspection and supervision, and improves the effectiveness of inspection and supervision.
Implement inspection and supervision of classified management. Different types of products with high / low risk should be treated differently and classified supervision should be implemented. The actual work can follow the guiding ideology of “strengthen the supervision of high-risk products and simplify the process of low-risk products”. Imported mechanical and electrical equipment under key supervision are mostly pressure-bearing, electrified, shearing or equipment closely related to the safety of the public. Due to the high level of safety and environmental protection involved, which seriously affects the life and property health of domestic users, the sampling rate should be increased. Inspection and quarantine institutions should not only study the corresponding mandatory standards seriously, and summarize the key points and difficulties of the mandatory requirements in a timely manner, but also be good at checking and filling gaps. For sensitive and high-risk imported equipment that does not have mandatory standards, timely study and compile mandatory standards, and Formulate and implement strict inspection and supervision work standards, adopt the mode of full supervision, cargo certificate verification, key link supervision (such as special inspection), and follow-up management to ensure product quality and safety. In addition to the continuous implementation of inspection and quarantine supervision, for imported special equipment and medical devices, it is necessary to strengthen horizontal cooperation, and actively carry out joint actions with the quality supervision and management department, food and drug management department, and strengthen law enforcement. For imported mechanical and electrical equipment, it is necessary to do a good job of pre-preparation, timely acquisition of project information, and if necessary, strengthen contact with the port bureau, supervise the importation of multiple batches of goods by the same consignee, and implement publicity and education. For the imported products with special management system, not only the imported products under key supervision should be implemented in the inspection and supervision mode, but also the work content should be constantly regulated and the work process should be serious in the process of record approval.
Adhere to the "concentrated return visit" to check for missing vacancies. According to the level of risk, the inspection and supervision department can categorize and manage the imported mechanical and electrical equipment, focusing on the limited work force. However, "catching big and letting small" of classified management cannot be generalized. Considering that the installation, commissioning and production cycle of imported equipment is too long, in addition to the safety and health ring, quality issues are the most important focus of import enterprises. In this regard, "Centralized Return Visit" can be used to make up for the loopholes that may be caused by "Classification Management". On the basis of the declaration of compliance with the low-risk products in the early stage, the regulatory department should also follow up and return visits to all imported electromechanical products of the year to focus on the product safety and quality issues. As a result, the inspection and supervision department can keep abreast of the operation status of the product, and the enterprise can also screen the goods for screening. Therefore, when a problem is found, an inspection certificate is issued in time to help the company make a claim and effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of the importing company.
Avoid vulnerabilities in violation of laws and regulations. In response to the violations of laws and regulations of various types of imported mechanical and electrical products, inspection and quarantine institutions should earnestly accomplish the following points: First, actively promote and avoid unknowing violations. Compile and distribute inspection and quarantine knowledge brochures, publicize inspection and quarantine laws and regulations, especially important sensitive products that implement special supervision systems, and explain in detail the inspection and quarantine procedures and precautions. Select large-scale import projects to carry out door-to-door training, carefully explain import acceptance and international trade knowledge, and guide enterprises to do a good job in acceptance. For unintentional violations such as unused prior use, while strictly acting in accordance with legal procedures, they must also explain patiently and meticulously, and strengthen education and supervision of the consignee in the follow-up process. The second is to intervene in advance and do it in a clear way. Actively understand and master the situation of large-scale local projects and key import projects issued by local governments, and understand the import needs and plans of enterprises by sending consultation letters, telephone interviews and other channels. Seriously strengthen the reminder and inspection work, and timely import and export of mechanical and electrical equipment to the enterprise for on-site verification. If it is determined that it belongs to the category of imported electromechanics, it shall actively explain the policy to the enterprise, publicize the relevant regulations of the state on the import and export of electromechanics, and strictly require enterprises to declare in accordance with the relevant regulations. The third is to strengthen inspection and ensure the quality of work. For imported mechanical and electrical products that implement import filing approval and special supervision systems, strictly implement 100% inspection, strengthen the inspection of inspection documents, and arrange unpacking inspection in time, focusing on verifying the conformity of the actual arrival situation with the declaration information To ensure timely detection of illegal imports. Imported products that violate the record approval procedures shall be handled in strict accordance with the relevant regulations, and relevant enterprises shall be registered, and the efforts of unpacking and inspection shall be increased in a targeted manner to effectively maintain the inspection and quarantine work order. (Xie Xingyang, Zhejiang Taizhou Inspection and Quarantine Bureau)